OCP11 – Creating nested classes (V) – Defining an Anonymous Class

A anonymouys class is a specialized form of a local class that does not have a name.

It is declared and instantiated all in one statement using the new keyword, a type name with parenthesis, and a set of braces {}.

Anonymous classes are required to extend an existing class or implement an existing interface.

Example using an Abstract class:

  public class ZooGiftShop {
     abstract class SaleTodayOnly {
        abstract int dollarsOff();
     }
     public int admission(int basePrice) {
        SaleTodayOnly sale = new SaleTodayOnly() {
           int dollarsOff() { return 3; }
        };  // Don't forget the semicolon!
        return basePrice - sale.dollarsOff();
} }

Line 2 through 4 define an abstract class through .
Line 6 through 8 define the anonymous class (it hasn’t a name).
The code says to instantiatea new SaleTodayOnly object. It is abstract but it is ok because we provide the class body right there – anonymously.
In this example, writing an anonymous class is equivalent to writing a local class with an unspecified name that extends SaleTodayOnly and then immediately using it.
Line 8 specifically we are declaring a local variable on these lines. Local variable declarations are required to end with semicolons, just like ohter java statements – even if they are long and happen to contain an anonymous class.

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OCP11 – Creating nested classes (IV) – Writing a local class

A local class is a nested class defined within a method.

Like local variables, a local class declaration does not exist until the method is invoked and it goes out of scope when the method returns.

This means you can create instances only from within the method. Those instances can still be returned from the method. This is how local variables work.

IMPORTANTE NOTE TO CONSIDER FOR THE EXAM: Local classes are not limited to being declared only inside methods. They can be declared inside constructors and initializers too. For simplicity, we limit our discussion to methods.

Local Classes have the following properties:

  • They do not have an access modifier.
  • They cannot be declared static and cannot declare static fields or methods, except for static final fields.
  • They have access to all fields and methods of the enclosing class (when defined in an instance method).
  • They can access local variables if the variables are final or effectively final.

IMPORTANTE NOTE TO CONSIDER FOR THE EXAM: Effectively final refers to a local variable whose value does not change after it is set. A simple test for effectively final is to add the final modifierto the local vairable declaration. If it still compiles, then the local variable is effectively final.

Example – Multiply two numbers in a complicated way:

1:  public class PrintNumbers {
2:     private int length = 5;
3:     public void calculate() {
4:        final int width = 20;
5:        class MyLocalClass {
6:           public void multiply() {
7:              System.out.print(length * width);
8:           }
9:        }
10:       MyLocalClass local = new MyLocalClass();
11:       local.multiply();
12:    }
13:    public static void main(String[] args) {
14:       PrintNumbers outer = new PrintNumbers();
15:       outer.calculate();
16:    }
17: }

Line 5 is the local class.
Line 7 refers to an instance variable and a final local variable, so both variables references are allowed from within the local class.
Line 9 is the local class.
Line 12 is the place where the class’ scope ends.

Local variables references are allowed if they are final or effectively final

The compile is generatinga .class file from the local class. A separate class has no way to refer to local variables.

If the local variable is final, Java can handle it by passing it to the constructor of the local class or by storing it in the .class file.

If it weren’t effectively final, these tricks wouldn’t work becuase the value could change after the copy was made.

Example:

public void processData() {
   final int length = 5;
   int width = 10;
   int height = 2;
   class VolumeCalculator {
      public int multiply() {
         return length * width * height; // DOES NOT COMPILE
      }
   }
   width = 2;  // Variable reassignation - origin of the error compilation
}

The length and height variables are final and effectively final, respectively, so neither causes a compilation issue.

On the other hand, the width variable is reassigned during the method so it cannot be effectively final. This is the reason why the local class declaration does not compile.

OCP11 – Creating nested classes (III) – Creating an static nested class

A static nested class is a static type defined at the member level. Unlike an inner class, a static nested class can be instantiated without an instance of the ecnlosing class.

The trade-off though, is it can’t access instance variables or methods in the outer class directly. It can be done but it requires an explicit reference to an outer class variable. It is like a top-level class except for:

  • The nesting creates a namespace because the cnlosing class name must be used to refer it.
  • It can be made private or use one of the other access modifiers to encapsulate it.
  • The enclosing class can refer to the fields and methods of the static nested class.

Example:

1: public class Enclosing {
2:    static class Nested {
3:       private int price = 6;
4:    }
5:    public static void main(String[] args) {
6:       Nested nested = new Nested();
7:       System.out.println(nested.price);
8: } }

Line 6 instantiates the nested class. Since the class is static, you don’t need an instance of Enclosing to use it.
Line 7 allows you to access private instance variables.

Importing a static Nested Class

Importing a static nested class is done using the regular import.

  // Toucan.java
    package bird;
    public class Toucan {
       public static class Beak {}
    }
    // BirdWatcher.java
    package watcher;
    import bird.Toucan.Beak; // regular import ok
    public class BirdWatcher {
       Beak beak;
    }

Since it is static you can also use a static import:

import  static  bird.Toucan.Beak;

IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER HERE FOR THE EXAM: Java treats the cnsloing class as if were a namespace.

OCP11 – Creating nested classes (II) – Declaring an Innner Class

An inner class, also called a member inner class, is a non‐ static type defined at the member level of a class (the same level as the methods, instance variables, and constructors). Inner classes have the following properties:

  • Can be declared public, protected, package‐private (default), or private
  • Can extend any class and implement interfaces
  • Can be marked abstract or final
  • Cannot declare static fields or methods, except for static final fields
  • Can access members of the outer class including private members. The last property is actually pretty cool. It means that the inner class can access variables in the outer class without doing anything special.

Example – Ready for a complicated way to print Hi three times?

1:  public class Outer {
2:     private String greeting = "Hi";
3:     
4:     protected class Inner {
5:        public int repeat = 3;
6:        public void go() {
7:           for (int i = 0; i < repeat; i++)
8:              System.out.println(greeting);
9:        }
10:    }
11:    
12:    public void callInner() {
13:       Inner inner = new Inner();
14:       inner.go();
15:    }
16:    public static void main(String[] args) {
17:       Outer outer = new Outer();
18:       outer.callInner();
19: } }

Line 8 shows that the inner class just refers to greeting as if it were available. It works even though the variable is private being on the same class.

Line 13 shows that an instance of the outer class can instantiate Inner normally. It works because callInner() is an instance method on Outer. Both Inner and callInner() are members of Outer.

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OCP11 – Creating nested classes (I)

A nested class is a class that is defined within another class. We have four different nested classes types:

  1. Inner class: A non-static type defined at the member level of a class.
  2. Static nested class: A static type defined at the member level of a class.
  3. Local class: A class defined within a method body.
  4. Anonymous class: A special case of a local class that does not have a name.

By convention we use the term inner or nested class to apply to other Java types, including enums and interfaces.

Interfaces and enums can be declared as both inner classes and static nested classes but not as local or anonymous classes.

We will explain each one of these nested classes in a different post and we will use this post to show which are the syntax rules permitted in Java for nested classes in three tables.

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Montar unidades de disco externas de forma permanente en Linux

En el siguiente artículo se explica la configuración necesaria en Linux para montar unidades de disco externas automáticamente al iniciar el sistema. Aunque la explicación y ejemplos se han hecho específicamente para sistemas Ubuntu, los mismos pasos también son aplicables a otros sistemas Linux.

El proceso se puede dividir en los siguientes pasos:

  1. Identificar el dispositivo de disco externo en el sistema.
  2. (Opcional) Configurar un grupo que permita restringir el acceso al contenido de las unidades externas.
  3. Modificar la configuración en fstab para añadir las unidades de disco externas a los dispositivos a montar durante el arranque del sistema.

Adicionalmente, se explica cómo habilitar un disco montado como volumen en contenedores Docker cuando se utilizan usuarios con acceso restringido a las ubicaciones de disco.

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OCP 11 – Language Enhancements (Java Fundamentals – Enumerations)

Generally speaking an Enumeration is like a fixed set of constants. But in Java an enum (short for enumerated type) can be a top-level type like a class or a interface, as well as a nested type like an inner class.

Using an enum is much better than using a lot of constants because it provides type safe checkline. With numeric or Strings contants you can pass an invalid value and not find out until runtime. On the other hand, with enums it is impossible to create an invalid value without introducing a compiler error.

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OCP11 – Migration to a Modular Application

Following the introductory post of Java Platform Module System , also known as JPMS, this post exposes different strategies to migrate applications developed in Java as they can make use of it. This covers the cases where original application is based on a non compatible Java version (< Java 9) or it is compatible (>=Java9) but it was not originally implemented, since the use of this mechanism is fully optional.

Migration strategies

The first step to perform in the migration of an application to the module system is to determine which modules / JAR files are present in an application and what dependencies exists between them. A very useful way to do so is through a hierarchical diagram where these dependencies are represented in a layered way.

This will help giving an overview of the application’s components and which one of them and in which order they can be migrated, identifying those which won’t be able to adapt temporarily or definitively.

The latter case can be given for example in third parties libraries that have stopped offering support and that will hardly become modules. This overview will help determine the migration strategy that will be carried out.

Next, 2 migration mechanisms are exposed that respond to different initial situations.

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Usando Let’s Encrypt y Certbot para generar certificados TLS para nginx

Let’s Encrypt es una autoridad de certificación que proporciona certificados TLS de forma gratuita a todo host que lo necesite para securizar las comunicaciones con éste. Si además se utiliza un sistema NOIP como DuckDNS como servidor DNS, se consigue sin costes adicionales tener un servidor publicado en la red aunque no se disponga de IP fija.

Las únicas contrapartidas que tiene son que el host ha de ser accesible desde internet, lo que deja fuera a hosts dentro de intranets, y que la duración del certificado generado es de 3 meses, lo que implica una renovación constante.

Afortunadamente, el proceso de generación y renovación de los certificados se puede automatizar completamente mediante la herramienta Certbot que tiene soporte para multitud de sistemas operativos y plataformas cloud.

En este post se describe el proceso de generación de certificados para un servidor HTTP nginx ubicado en un sistema Ubuntu 20.04 con IP dinámica gestionada por el servicio DuckDNS.

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